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Syllabus for M.Tech & PhD Entrance Exam



Elementary Statistics and theory of probability, differential and integral calculus, linear algebra and Fourier series, differential equations, vector algebra & vector calculus, elementary numerical analysis.
UNIT-II: Electric motors: Types, performance, selection, installation and maintenance, measuring instruments, fundamentals of computers, power distribution.
UNIT-III: Thermodynamic principles; fluid mechanics, theory of machines
UNIT-IV: Soil mechanics, soil classification, compaction & shear strength of soils, engineering mechanics, strength of materials
UNIT-V: Importance of farm equipment and role of mechanization in enhancing productivity & profitability of Indian agriculture; analysis of forces, design and production of farm machinery and power units; mechanics of tillage & traction operation, repair and maintenance of farm machines and equipment, farm engines; tractors and power tillers; tractor stability and operators comfort; field capacity and cost analysis; test codes and procedure; safety and ergonomic principles. Role of energy in economic development; solar, wind and bio-energy; biogas plants & gasifiers; biofuels from biomass; collection, characterization and storage of biomass, solar cookers & solar refrigerators.
UNIT-VI: Biochemical and engineering properties of biological materials; quality control & safety of raw and finished products. Principles, practices and equipments for drying, milling, separation and storage of agricultural produce and by-products; material handling equipment and operations; farmstead planning; heating & cooling load calculation; seed processing practices and equipments; food preservation methods and products development; refrigeration and air conditioning; cold stores; waste management, cost analysis & food processing plants layout, feasibility reports. Machinery for processing of agricultural products-cereals, pulses, oilseeds, oil palms, fruits and vegetables and animal products.
UNIT-VII: Surveying and leveling; hydrology, water resources in India; efficiency in water use; irrigation system and equipment; water conveyances and associated efficiency; soil-plant-water relationship; estimation of evaporation and water requirements of crop; water harvesting and use, farm ponds and reservoirs, command area development, land use capability classification, ground water development, wells and pumping equipment, soil erosion and its control, land shaping and grading equipment and practices, hydraulic structures, drainage of irrigated and humid areas; salt balance and reclamation of saline and alkaline soils.


Section 1: Farm Structures
Farm pond. Hydrological design of percolation ponds. Conveyance and regulatory structures, Residential structures for a farm family. Farm storage structures. Low-cost sanitary structures. Open dug well structure. Pump house. Underground water supply structures. Brooder-house and incubation structures. Dryer structures. Biogas plants. Compost pit. Waste water recycling structures and oxidation pond. Drop, chute and pipe spillway structures for soil conservation.
Section 2: Off-farm Structures
Grain storage structures. Structures for perishables. Roads, culverts and nallah structures. Rat proof godowns. Transport container design. Input storage (warehousing). Low-cost building materials. Piggery, poultry and other livestock structures. Integrated farming structures. Feedstuff storage structures. Conveyors and material handling units. Fuel efficient stoves. Kilns and dryers.
Section 3: Planning
Farmstead planning: Survey and data collection for information bank. Analysis of data. Options for action programme. Layouts. Cost estimation and appraisal. Project development: Time, motion and input analysis. Commissioning and maintenance. Flow charts and drawings. Case studies. Rural electrification: load estimation, and selection of equipment. Electrical fencing. Safety devices including fire fighting. Benefit-cost analysis. Economics of operation. Technology options. Techno-economic feasibility. Household electrical wiring. Electricity safety. Illumination, transmission and distribution
of electrical energy.
Section 4: Materials’ Handling and Transport
Agricultural commodity handling technology. Horticultural product handling technology. Animal products handling. Handling of waste products. Handling of value added products. Trailers, bullock carts, wheel barrows and trucks. Bulk handling units.
Section 5: Post-harvest Operations
Losses at different stages. Grading, cleaning and sorting. Shelling, dehusking and decorticating. Milling and polishing. Parboiling. Drying. Size reduction. Granulation and briquetting. Crystallization, filtration, evaporation, distillation, mixing, clarification and densification. Coagulation. Washing. Sizing. Mechanical separation. Sedimentation. Pressing and expelling. Baling. Pelletization. Extrusion. Stabilization. Cryogenics.
Section 6: Design
Steel structures. RCC structures. Masonary structures. Function design. Materials science—ferrous, non-ferrous, plastic, FRP and wastes. Performance design. Straw walkers. Blowers. Hopper chutes. Vibrators. Centrifuges. Cyclones. Heat exchangers. Non-conventional thermal energy design. Solar and biomass equipment.
Section 7: Environment Control
Heat and vapour flow in farm buildings. Heating, cooling load calculations. Heat transfer and insulation. Livestock environment control. Incubators. Humidification and dehumidification. Use of psychrometric chart and steam falls. Poly/ greenhouse. Air curtain growth chamber. Engineering properties of biological materials-physical,
mechanical, thermal, electrical, theological, aerodynamic and dielectric. Heat and mass transfer. Air conditioning and refrigeration. Controlled atmosphere storage systems. Equilibrium moisture content. Moisture and temperature variation
during storage.
Section 8: Processing and Processing Equipment
Machinery for processing of agricultural products- cereals, pulses, oilseeds, fruits and vegetables, animal products, tubers, spices and condiments, farm residues, apiary, tobacco, seed processing, biofertilizers and bio-pesticide formulations.
Section 9: Design and Management
Cost scheduling and appraisal. PERT and CPM techniques. Design of structure and equipment for farm products handling including feed and waste. Feed plant design and management. Design of rural sanitation structures. Design of heat exchangers,double pipe shell, tube and extended surface. Design of dryers, humidifiers, crystallizers, evaporators, separators, filters and miling equipment. Design of dairy equipment.

Section 10: Basic Sciences and Allied Engineering Subjects
Thermodynamics applied to processing. Theory of machine elements. Fluid flow analysis. Materials science. Tests of hypothesis. Multiple regression. Similitude and dimensional analysis. Application of biotechnology. Downstream chemical engineering-thermo-chemical and bio-chemical.


Section 1

Status and scope of farm mechanization in India. Power availability on the farm. Identification of need based priorities of mechanization for various cropping systems. Hand tools used for different kinds of farm work, design considerations and materials for construction. Functional requirements, principles of working, construction, design, operation and management of animal-and power-operated equipments for tillage, land development, sowing, planting, fertilizer application, inter-cultivation, mowing, chaff cutting and baling. Special equipment for crops such as sugarcane, cotton, groundnut, potato and jute.
Section 2
Design and selection of machinery elements: gear, pulleys, chains and sprockets, belts and simple clutches. Calibrations of seed drills, planters, sprayers and fertilizer applicators. Performance and losses in harvesting and threshing. Machinery systems design. Calculations of field capacity, efficiency and rate of seed, fertilizer and chemicals applicators, threshers, harvesters and chaff cutters.
Section 3
Force analysis on machine elements. Pull, draft, unit draft and energy calculations for animal and power operated equipment.Methods of testing of tillage equipments, seed-drills, seeders, plants, sprayers, threshers, and combines. Farm machinery selection for different soils, crops and operations. Cost analysis of implements and operations. Methods and materials for
manufacturing and quality control of farm equipments.
Section 4
Source of power on the farm: human, mechanical, wind solar, biogas and producer gas. Energy conversion, capacities and efficiencies of energy utilization from these sources. Fuels and combustion in internal combustion engines, fuel properties and combustion equations. Lubricants and their properties. Thermodynamic processes and calculations on energy exchange.
Section 5
Various systems of spark and compression ignition engines. Operations, adjustment and trouble shooting on the working of the systems. Design of engine components. Calculations on horse power, torque, speed, firing arrangement and intervals, heal load and power transmission from piston to the fly wheel.
Section 6
Tractor: clutches, gear trains, differential and final drives. Tractor chassis mechanics. Traction theory. Power tillers: design, operation and management.
Section 7
Hitching systems and hydraulic controls. Hydraulic symbols and circuits for tractors and combines. Utilization and management of power implement systems for different soils, crops and operations. Tractor-implement system performance evaluation. Various types of dynamometers. Tractor testing and test codes. Cost analysis of power-implement systems and their operations. Human engineering and safety in power-machine systems.
Section 8
Basic concepts of trignometry, calculus, linear algebra and analytical geometry. Elements of statistics. Dynamics and strength of materials. Physical and mathematical models. Similarity in model-prototype testing. Measurement of forces, torque, speed, displacement and acceleration on machine elements. Elementary statistical inference. Measures of central tendency and dispersion. Common random variable distributions. Testing of hypothesis. Correlation and regression analysis.


Section 1: Water Resources of India

Present status of utilization and scope for additional use. Increasing efficiency in water use. General principles of design of irrigation wells and tanks. Water lifts and irrigation pumps. Classification, principles of operation, types of drives, pumps, pump installation, performance characteristics and economics.
Section 2: Water Conveyance and Control
Hydraulics of open channels. Design of farm irrigation channels. Conveyance losses in canal systems. Weed problems and control. Lining of field channels and water courses. Structures to control erosion in gullies and irrigation channels. Underground pipeline irrigation distribution system. Design and installation of underground pipeline irrigation systems. Structure for underground pipelines. Hydraulic principles of water measurement. Measurement of irrigation water velocity-area method, water meters, coordinate method, weirs, Parshall flumes, orifices and meter gates. Water application methods. Hydraulics of border strip, check basin and furrow methods of irrigation. Design of surface irrigation systems. Comparative efficiencies and economics of different methods of irrigation. Sprinkler and drip irrigation methods.
Section 3: Soil-Plant-Water Relationships
Soil physical characteristics influencing irrigation. Soil moisture measurement in the unsaturated zone. Evaporation and irrigation requirements on evapo-transpiration basis: Crop factors for different stages of crop growth. Critical stages of crop growth in relation to irrigation. Irrigation scheduling. Salt problems in irrigated agriculture. Origin of salts in irrigation waters.Drainage and irrigated lands in relation to salinity control. Irrigation with poor quality water. Drainage: theory of flow in saturated soils. Drainage investigations. Drainage characteristics of various types of soils. Water table contour maps and isobar maps.Design and installation of surface and subsurface drains. Interceptor and relief drains and their design. Drain accessories. Drainage requirements of crops. Drainage in relation to salinity control. Conjunctive use of surface and groundwater.
Section 4: Hydrologic Processes
Precipitation, infiltration and runoff. Soil erosion. Quantitative soil loss estimation. Land use capability classification. Field practices in controlling erosion by water and wind. Design and construction of contour bunds, terraces and vegetative water courses. Gully control, vegetative measures, temporary, semipermanent and permanent structures for gully control and reclamation and their design. Farm ponds and reservoirs and their  design and construction. Integrated area development and land use planning for soil and water conservation.
Section 5: Watershed Management
Identification and characterization of watersheds based on soil, vegetative and topographic characteristics. Surveying: topographic, reconnaissance. Soil types and depth properties. Soil maps and their scales. Meteorological observations. General methods of development. Land clearing-intermediate and heavy cleaning methods and equipment. Criteria for land leveling design methods. Earth work—quantities, equipment, construction procedures, preservation of top-soil, construction tolerance, checking, finishing, maintenance and contour levelling.
Section 6: Special Land Development Problems
Reclamation of ravine, waterlogged and swampy areas, sea (polders), saline and alkali areas. Land development machinery and land clearing equipment. Land levelling and construction. Maintenance of developed land. Economics of land development. Legal aspects. Knowledge of command area authorities and land development boards and financial implications. Interstate projects and their functionaries. Water rights and command area management. Optimization techniques for management.

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