AINP on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants & Betelvine


Considering the tremendous potentiality of Betelvine, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) extended its hand for research on betelvine by creating a new All India Coordinated Research Project (AICRP) in 1981 under Crop Science division initially with six centres. The project was initially started as a disease management programme (AICRP on Betelvine Diseases). BCKV, Kalyani was included as a centre of this AICRP in 1983, and it started functioning in 1984 with three scientist posts. In the VIII Plan, the project was shifted from the Crop Science division to Horticulture division of the Council and the project objectives was slightly modified with the inclusion of other activities such as crop improvement, crop production, other components of crop protection and post harvest technology and thereby changing its name to AICRP on Betelvine. In the Xth Plan (2002-2007), AICRP on Betelvine was converted in to All India Net-Working Project (AINP on Betelvine) as per the recommendation of the Jain Committee. In the XI Plan, ICAR took a decision to merge two projects (AINP on MAP & AINP on Betelvine) into one AICRP giving the name AICRP on MAP & Betelvine to give a new dimension of Betelvine crop integrating with the Indian System of Medicine. As a result, the AICRP on MAP and Beteivine has now 22 centers which are coordinated from the Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Research. The first Workshop of AICRP on MAP and Beteivine was held at MPKV, Rahuri during November 8-11, 2010. For maintenance of betelvine germplasm, BCKV centre has been chosen for germplasm hub particularly for Bangla type cultivars.

Year of start/establishment of the Project: 1984

Ex-Vice Chancellor & Ex-Director of Research, BCKV

Staff Strength (Scientific/Technical or Supporting) in Full Details:

Name Designation
Prof. Bijan Kr. Das   Professor of Agril. Entomology & Officer Incharge 
Dr. Goutam Mondal   Associate Professor (Plant Pathology) 
Dr. Pran Krishna Thakur   Assistant Professor (Horticulture) 
Sri Krishanu Sarkar   Jr. Assistant 
Sri Tapan Kr. Dam   Driver (Light) 
Sri Kuno Soren   Jr. Mali 
Mrs. Ranibala Mondal   Jr. Mali 

Infrastructure Available:

  • No. of Boraj: 5 nos.
  • Medicinal Plant Garden: 1 no.
  • No. of Agro-shed Net House: 2 nos.
  • Laboratory Instruments: Light Research Microscope (1 nos.), Stereo Microscope (2 nos.), BOD (4 nos.), Laminar Air Flow Chamber (1 nos.), UV-VIS Spectrophotometer (1 no.), Auto-Clave and Centrifuge (1no.)




  • Collection, maintenance and evaluation betelvine germplasm (mainly Bangla cultivars)
  • To appraise the pest and disease situation of betelvine in West Bengal.
  • To identify source of resistance to the pests and diseases by collecting and testing the available germplasm in different parts of the country.
  • Development of integrated pest and disease management protocols.
  • To develop agro-technique for the development of effective and economically viable betelvine culture.

Medicinal and Aromatic Plants

The major objectives of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants research for this centre:

  • Collection and maintenance of germplasms of medicinal plants with special emphasis on Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata), Bach (Acorus calamus), Sarpagandha (Rouvolfia sepentina), Pipul (Piper longum), Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) and Thankuni (Centella asiatica).
  • Development of agrotechniques for Kalmegh Sarpagandha, Pipul and Thankuni
  • Survey of pests & diseases of medicinal plants
  • To assess the economic impact of insect pests & diseases on the production of medicinal plants.
  • To study the seasonality and biology of important insect pests and pathogens of medicinal plants and their management.

Salient Findings:



  • New variety: One clonal selection from Bangla cultivar ‘Ghanagette’ has been identified as high yielder and recommended for release in West Bengal as ‘Bidhan Pan-1’
  • Major biological stress in betel vine cultivation in W.B. have been identified:
    • Diseases: Foot rot and leaf rot caused by Phytophthoranicotianae , Basal rot caused by Sclerotium rolfsii, Leaf spot disease caused by Colletotrichum capsici and Xanthomonas campestris pv. Beticola
    • Insect and mite pests: whitefly Singhiella pallida (Singh), blackfly, Aleurocanthus rugosa Singh,Mite, Brevipalpus phoenicis
  • Sources of Resistance against pests & diseases identified
    • ‘Halisar Sanchi’ - resistant to multiple diseases such as foot rot, leaf rot, anthracnose and bacterial leaf spot
    • Kalipatti, Simurali Sanchi, Halisahar Sanchi -- resistant to whitefly,Singhiella pallida
    • CARI- 2 (AN), CARI-6(AN) and Bilhari - moderately resistance against blackfly, Aleurocanthus rugosa.
  • Standardization of Inoculum for Mass Multiplication of Trichoderma has been done. Wheat can be used as substrate for the production of mass culture of T. harzianum. Trichoderma spore production was maximum when 60g of culture was inoculated in 10kg of de-oiled mustard cake or groundnut oil cake and incubated for 60 days. The spore concentration decreased as the days of incubation period increased.
  • Trichoderma sp. applied at 107 CPU remains in the soil upto 90 days at same CPU, then CPU of Trichoderma sp. decreases below 107 CPU). Trichoderma sp should be applied in soil at 90 days intervals to obtain the optimum efficacy to control the major fungal diseases of betelvine.
  • Detail biologies of betelvine blackfly - Aleurocanthus rugosa, whitefly - Singhiella pallida and blackfly - Aleurocanthus bucktoni (Aleyrodidae: Hemiptera) on betelvine have been worked out.
  • New Pests and parasitoids on Betelvine:
    • a) In betelvine, one new aleyrodid fly, Aleurocanthus bucktoni Sundararaj & Pushpa (Aleyrodidae: Hemiptera) has been recorded on betelvine from Kalyani, West Bengal.
    • An internal parasitoid of Aleurocanthus rugosa Singh has been identified as a species of Eretmocerus Haldeman (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae: Aphelininae).

Medicinal and Aromatic Plants:

  • Promising lines of Kalmegh, INGR07041 (4733kg/ha) and Bach, Aihagaripalli (3.96 t/ha) for high yield have been identified.
  • Development of agro-techniques for Kalmegh: The proper spacing of Kalmegh has been standardized as: (a) 30 x 20 cm (at the end of July) and (b) 45x45 cm (in early June).
  • The date of sowing of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdarifa) has been standardized as mid of March to end of March in southern districts of West Bengal.
  • Detail life history and biology of following insect pests of medicinal plants have been studied: (a) Spilostethus hospes (Fabricius) on ashwagandha, (b) Pachliopta aristolochiae (Fabricius) on Aristolochia indica and (c) Daphnis nerii (L.) on Rauvolfia serpentina:
  • Records of diseases on medicinal and aromatic plants: 35 nos.
  • Records of insect and mite pests on medicinal and aromatic plants: 90 nos.

Some important diseases of medicinal plants at Kalyani, WB

Some important insect and mite pests of medicinal plants at Kalyani, WB

  • New Pests and parasitoids on Medicinal Plants: Erythrina Gall Wasp (EGW) - Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a new invasive gall inducing pest of Erythina spp. Three new parasitoids have been discovered from galls of EGW found parasitizing larva and pupa of EGW. These belong to genus Aprostocetus (Tetrastichinae: Eulophidae). These three species of Aprostocetus have been described.

New Insect Pests on Betelvine and Medicinal Plants

Aleurocanthus bucktoni Sundararaj & Pushpa Betelvine (Aleyrodidae: Hemiptera)

Galls on Erythrina variegate by Erythrina gall wasp, Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim

  • Life history and biology newly invasive Erythrina gall wasp (EGW), Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae):
    A new gall inducing insect, Erythrina gall wasp (EGW), Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) was first reported in West Bengal in 2008.
    Q. erythrinae was found widely distributed in West Bengal, inducing galls on the developing new shoot axis, petiole, rachis and leaflet and flower of E. variegata, causing substantial damage to Erythrina plants, sometimes affecting more than 90% of developing shoots. A few hymenopteran insect species other than Q. erythrinae could be recorded from Erythrina galls.

Recommendations at State Level (Variety/ Technologies/Patenting etc):


Variety Development

One clonal selection from Bangla cultivar ‘Ghanagette’ has been identified as high yielder and recommended for release in West Bengal as ‘BIDHAN PAN-1’. This has also been recommended for and recommended for cultivation in the Eastern Region. It is also moderately resistant to major betelvine diseases. It gives 30% more yield over the popular cultivated varieties.

Technologies Recommended

  • Recommended Integrated Crop Management (IPM+INM) Module for Betelvine :
    • Agronomic Practice:
      • Plant population 1.5-1.7 lakh/ha (Spacing, RxR-50-60 cm, PxP-10-15 cm)
      • Nutrients: 200kg N of organic form in 4 splits +100kg P2O5 + 100 kg K2O/ ha (Nitrogen from organic sources)
      • Irrigation at 3 lit./ sq.m (9-10 times/year)
      • Use of Tricontanol (0.05%) thrice at monthly interval after cessation of rains
    • Disease Management:
      • Sanitation (clean cultivation) + one application of Bordeaux mixture(1%) at pre-monsoon + application of Trichoderma harzianum / viride after one month + one additional application of Bordeaux mixture (1%) two months after first Bordeaux mixture application.
        [Rate of application of Biocontrol agent: 5kg culture of Trichoderma harzianum /viride (in broken jowar/wheat) in 500 kg of oilcake for one ha]
    • Insect and Mite Pest Management:
      • For insect pests particularly, white and blackflies and mealybugs:
        Spraying of 5% neem seed extract (50g + 1L Water), Neem oil @ 5ml/litre. Emulsifier like Tween 80, Sandovit, Teepol AG @ 1ml/L or 5g Soap powder should be used with neem seed extract or neem oil at 15 days interval.
        Use of Malathion 50EC/ Dichlorvos 76%EC (0.05%) during extreme crisis period.
      • For Management of Mite:
        Wettable sulphur 0.15% or Dicofol 2.5ml/L or Diafenthiuron 50 WP (1g/L) two times 10days interval.
        Neem cake @ 2 tonnes/ha is recommended for nematode control in standing crop.
  • For new plantation, solarization and soil treatment with formalin (pre-planting ) are recommended:
    During hot summer, covering of well ploughed land with transparent polythene sheath for one month. During this period, sprinkling of water once in a week in the afternoon by removing the sheath. After one month, drenching the land sufficiently with 40% Formalin diluted in water (1:50) and again covering the land for an other 5 days. New planting should be done one month after the application of formalin.

Other Activities:

  • Human Resource Development: M.Sc. & Ph.D. students guided
    • M. Sc. students guided: 18 nos.
    • Ph. D. Students guided: 9 nos.
  • Extension Activities
    The AICRP on MAP & BV carried out extension work for transfer of technology to the end users. The scientists provide advisory service to the betelvine farmers as well as extension specialists.
    The research findings particularly of Betelvine research have been successfully disseminated to the farmers through publishing and distributing literatures, demonstration trial on farmers’ fields, exhibition in Krishi Mela & Technology Week, publishing popular article in magazines and news papers, attending phone calls, personal visit to farmers’ field and delivering lectures on TV.

Farmers’ Training, Krishi Mela and Farmers’ Field Visit

Field and Laboratory

Visit of dignitaries at Medicinal Plant Garden & Betelvine Borojas


  • New variety: One clonal selection from Bangla cultivar ‘Ghanagette’ has been identified as high yielder and recommended for release in West Bengal as ‘Bidhan Pan-1’
  • Design and Development of Permanent Boroj Structure: A new permanent structure of boroja has been developed with concrete basal peripheral and iron angle. Though, initial cost being high, the recurring cost for maintenance is significantly reduced.
  • Disease management technology of betelvine has been developed.
  • Recorded  35 diseases on medicinal and aromatic plants.
  • Recorded 90 insect and mite pests on medicinal and aromatic plants.
  • New pests and diseases have been discovered.
  • Guidelines for the Conduct of Test for Distinctiveness, Uniformity and Stability (DUS) for Betelvine (Piper betle L.) have been developed.
  • Guidelines for the Conduct of Test for Distinctiveness, Uniformity and Stability (DUS) for Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata) have been formulated.
  • Fifty-four cultivars/landraces of betelvine are being maintained at this center. More than twenty-four hybrid lines developed at IIHR, Bangalore are also in the collection.
  • The centre maintains an herbal garden with a collection of about 150 plant species of medicinal and aromatic plants including some endangered species.